Morris H. F., The Kingdom of Mpororo.pdf

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The Uganda Journal
VOLUME 19, No. 2
Explonuion of che Ru-ozori -
The Fishcs of Uganda-I
British Adm1mma1ion m Langa Distrlci. 1907-l'ilJS
Fishery Rc'lelrch in EauAfrica-
Thc Munsa Eanhworks •
Notes on thcFloraofKasilang Erony, T«o
R. S. A. 8E:AUCH.<.'IP
• E. C. l..o.NNlNG
Myth, H1s!ory and Mourning Taboos in Lugbara
011.. J. MIOOteTON
The Kingllom nr Mpororo
• H. f. MORR!S
The Burial ofKabarcga.
Bunyor0Gra1n Pit1
The Casiina of Mc1ab by Afncans
The Jm~rial Bn11sh East Arric-a Company Medal
Shaftsin Buganda and Toro
The Comin1 or the Banana 10 Uganda -
Index to Volumc 19 of TM Uganda Journal
·A. S. Tno..u.s
/'ubliJh~d by
Price Sh!l. JO (JOs.)
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T!!~t~~~d:m~i~rr:U~h~:~~~· ~~~~~:, s~°:tt :;ń~a~~;ua~~dc:=~~~;
Kigezisuddenlymadeitsappcarancetowardsthe cndofthel7thcenturyandas
suddenly disappeared. Traditionul accounts, which arc of the scantiest, allow
for two Bakama only, Kamurari and Kahaya, and somc do not cven recognize
the former as an actual Mukama. Tradition docs not satisfactorily explain
wtiencc these rulcrs of Mpororo carne. They and their fellow Basbambo. the
main elan to whicb all the leading Mpororo sub-dans belong, appear to have
originated from the soutb or south-west. They WClll, it sccms. the last of the
period ie wavcs of Hamitic pcoplc to enter Ankole, the &hima of Ankole propcr.
with whom they alll a lmost idcntical in appcarance and language, having pre·
cededthem byscveral centuries. Thekingdomtheyfoundedwasofthepattern
usuulforthesepartsofEastAfrica,thatis,itbad apastora!Harniticuristocrucy
to whom the indigenous Bantu cultivators were subordinate. At its head was the
king. whosc power was symbolizcd by his posscssion of a royal drum, and who
was evcr shiftiug his headąuarters as his hcrds were movcd to fresh grazing. As
will be uplained below, on Kahaya's death the kingdom split inio iragments,
some ofwhich remaincd scmi-indepcnckmt unti l the eslablishmcnt of British rule.
Concerning the anteoedcnlS of Kamurari, the founder of the kingdom, all the
Basbambo c\ans arc silent cxcept the Benerugambagye, wbosc head gives the
namcs of six of Kamurari's ancestors, all of whom lived in Mpororo. The first,
signilicantly. was ca\led Mantu and from him descended Kazi, Karagaire,
Muzora, Ntagu, Kiowa and Kamurari. T raditional accounts arc fai rly con·
sistentinagrceing that Kamurari and his brother Jshcmurarientered what is
now the Anl:o\e Saza of Kajara whelll 1hey found !he Amazon Queen Kitami
whosc subjects wcre all women. From Kitami. whose death is a.scribed to the
sting of a bee and whosc spirit was later worsbippcd as Nyabiogi, Kamurari
procured the drum Murarwa and control of the neig.hbouńngcountry. He 1ook
for his wife Mikye ra of the Bencishel:atwa ciao whicb he found in Kajara and
ncar Rwcntobo can stili be scen the bark-cloth trce whieh is said to mark the
sile of the birth of their son Kahaya Rutindangyezi.
Undcr Kahaya, Mpororo extended its front iers to include all Kigezi (cxccpt
the modern Bufumbira Saza) the Ankole Sazas of Ka jara, !gara, Shema and
Rwampara (except the low ground south of the Rwizi River) and the northern
portion of Ruanda (Fig. I). Kahaya had a large family , from whom the
important sub-clan.s of the Bashambo trace their ońgin, and its members
established themselvcs in vańous parlll of his kingdom. One son only. Mafundo.
whose mother was a slave girl. was given a drum and the authori1y thai went
with it. His territory was the important kingdom of lgara wbich lay across the
salt routc to Lakes Edward and George. Many claim thai Ruanda proper also
was subordinate to Kahaya who is said to havc establishcd the prcscnt dynasty
on the throne. lt is stated thai Kahaya gave Ruanda to his brother Kirima whose
son he undcrtool: to bring up with his own fa miły. While the boy was in Mpororo,
Kahaya by mistake lamed hirn by treading on his foot . Thcn. nicknaming him
'Kigyere' (omugyere, a foot), be sent bim back IO bis fatber with the prornise
that he would always support him against bis enemies. Tbere seems. bowever,
to be nothing in Ruanda tradition to support the idea of the subordination of
that country to Mpororo. The Batusi of Ruanda, though similar to the Bahororo,
arenottbesame pe-0pl e andhaveadifferen1language. Furthermore,thepedi-
gree of the Ruanda Bakama. which gives twenty generations prior to Kirirna
father of Ki gyere, makes no mention of Kamurari, tbough, on the otber band,
the second and third Bałama have the names of Muniu and Kazi. which
correspond to those in the Benerugambagye pedigree
--- M$<.m ,,..,.-·
- - - °"""'' r.,.,,,.,,., -
Arcas rulcdby8ashamb<>cla n1 inlhe&econdhal( of theninetcemhcentury.
In Kahaya's reign close relat ions were es[ablisbed witb the neigbbouring
kingdorn of Ankole; tbese followed a marriage in the 1ime of Kamurari and
were \ater to result in the absorption in Anko!e of a great part of Mpororo. The
Mugabe of Ankole, Ntare, later IO be known as Kitabanyoro. at the bcginning
of bis reign (probably about 1700)1 visited in secret the kraal of Kamurari. When
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1he lat!cr discovered who he was. he gave him two o( his daughters. Kabibi and
Mukabandi. as his wives. Previously the Bagabe had always married inio the
Batwa and Baitira dans and when Nłare returned with his Bashambo wives. he
met with considerab!e opposition. He was told that rain had fallen incessantly
sincehehadgoneto Mpororoand thatthe roya\drums bad beensoundingon
their own because of his marriage into a strange elan. The Bashambo women
arc renowned for their beauty and from Ntare's time it has been customary for
Bagabe to choose Bashambo wives. The Mugabe Macwa followe d his father's
la1ertheMugabe Kahaya J,wasbroughtupbyhismaternalgrandfather.
Kahaya Rutindangyezi had a number of sons who. with their descendants.
are shown in the accompanying genealogical trec. 1 They were. however. unduti -
fu l and. before his dearh. Kahaya <.:ursed them and buried the drum Murorwa
so rha! none of them should su~ed him . To his grandson by his daughter
Nkazi. he le ft his na me Kahaya and. though some portions of Mpororo oot11inued
to maintain an independent. or semi-independent, position under Kahaya's
untilthemiddleofthenineteenth<.:enlury. Itsrulers.the Benemafundo,hadtheir
drum. Kihoza. and maintained the ceremonies normally associated with full
Bakama_The drums and other regalia stili survive in a good state of preserva-
tion and are kept by the grandson of the last Mukama in the Gombolola of
Sabadu Igara (Fig. 2). Of the Igara Bakama, Ka juga is remembered as a tyrant
whotorturedhissubjectsandseizcdtheircattle. ltissaidthatthenamelgara
bad been blinded by their king. the verbkwigaramea ning tostopuporblind
Afterthedeath ofKajuga'sson. Katana, lgara<.:ame underthesuzeraintyof
Ankole. The Banyankole belped Namurenga to drive out his <.:ousin Rutondo
and \ater when he proved intractable he was deposed and Rutondo brought
back. Rutondo's son Musinga was Mukama when the British Administration
was established. According to eustom. Bakama should never mee! one another
and so. when ordered to Mbarara to a<.:knowledge the Administration and the
Mugabe, he <.:ommitted suidde by disembowelment on rea<.:bing the border of
his kingdom. On hearing of the Mukama's death. his sister Kitunga went to the
royal kraal . c\ose to the present Bushenyi R est Camp, and ordered all the women
to hang themselves. Then she hanged Musinga's two sons. Mukotani and Kib-
wana. boysabout ten andsevenyearsold, and finallyshe hangedherself. For-
tunately. help <.:amc in time and the two boys were reocued a live. Mukotani was
thcn establishedas sazachief of lgara undertheregency of his uncle and pul
bis mark to the Agreement of 1901. A few years later, however, a Muganda was
killed in the saza and Mukotani was held responsible and dismissed. His son is
nowaMurukachief there.
was given by Kamurari as a wedding present when Nrare married Mukabandi
Others say that Kahaya Rutindangye:ti gave it to the Mugabe when his grandson
2 Six "'ns are &iven. li is Pid by "'me that Ruhiri was anothtT son of Kahaya
T he drums of lgara. 11.wam)'an iko. the hereditar) kec~r of the (left) i< scen with
E. 11.ukun\u. the head of the Jlcncmafundo. Ma~in1a. conwrt to Kohoza. is the drum in
front of Rwam yaniko; to the right i5 the main drum. K ihoia. The undccoratcd drum5 are
aucndantio KihozaandMazima.
Zgłoś jeśli naruszono regulamin