Ep 3 - Cruel Sea.txt

(14 KB) Pobierz
{959}{1035}The most fearsome predator|of the Jurassic
{1038}{1093}is watching his prey.
{1095}{1143}Peering through the water,
{1143}{1220}the carnivore|fixes on his unwary victim,
{1220}{1287}waiting for the perfect moment|to strike.
{1850}{1949}Under these azure waters|lies the future continent of Europe,
{1951}{2009}but now,|in the late Jurassic period,
{2011}{2107}all that exists here|are a few scattered islands.
{2109}{2172}The break-up of the old continents
{2172}{2263}has pushed up the ocean floor|and raised sea levels,
{2265}{2368}flooding the lowlands|and creating vast shallow seas.
{2481}{2567}Here, dinosaurs do N0T rule.
{2625}{2692}Instead, giant marine reptiles|have evolved,
{2694}{2788}perfectly adapted to life|in these beautiful waters.
{2790}{2910}All of them are air-breathers,|like this eight-tonne Cryptoclidus.
{2913}{2999}0n the land,|they are cumbersome hulks,
{3001}{3066}but in water, they are transformed.
{3270}{3344}All sea reptiles once lived on land,
{3347}{3399}but 75 million years ago,
{3402}{3469}their ancestors took to the water
{3471}{3519}and their legs became flippers.
{3649}{3704}They share this shallow sea
{3706}{3819}with other strange Jurassic|creatures, like the ammonites,
{3821}{3886}that snare small prey|with their tentacles.
{3989}{4039}These rich, sunlit waters
{4042}{4121}are on the northern edge|of the ancient Tethys 0cean -
{4121}{4217}the sea that separates|the Earth's two continents,
{4219}{4308}one in the north|and one in the south.
{4308}{4363}0nce a year, they are the stage
{4366}{4454}for a remarkable natural drama.
{4572}{4668}It starts with|a single pregnant 0phthalmosaurus,
{4670}{4752}followed by hundreds more|of her kind.
{4754}{4867}All are gathering here|from deeper water to give birth.
{4996}{5054}These are the oldest|of marine reptiles
{5056}{5145}and most completely adapted|to aquatic life,
{5147}{5210}with streamlined fish-like bodies.
{5756}{5804}Most other marine reptiles,
{5807}{5886}like Cryptoclidus,|use all four flippers
{5888}{5974}to chase the blizzards of fish|through the water.
{6197}{6300}Flapping like underwater wings,|the flippers can be used separately
{6305}{6370}to give them huge manoeuvrability,
{6372}{6468}or together,|for sudden bursts of speed.
{6679}{6734}This unique method of locomotion
{6737}{6814}is destined to disappear|from the ocean
{6816}{6902}at the end of the age|of the dinosaurs.
{7013}{7082}The animals|on the small islands above
{7084}{7180}also depend on the sea's bounty|for their survival.
{7243}{7336}Among the jagged rocks|live a colony of flying reptiles.
{7339}{7437}These sea pterosaurs|are called Rhamphorhynchus.
{7502}{7576}They have evolved a way|of catching fish
{7576}{7636}without getting their wings wet.
{7641}{7701}Their beaks skim through the water,
{7703}{7763}grabbing anything in their path.
{8137}{8233}The teeth of these flying reptiles|may look bizarre,
{8235}{8348}but they are ideal for snatching|slippery fish from the water.
{8394}{8499}However, swallowing their catch|is a different matter.
{8566}{8626}(Harsh squawking)
{8741}{8806}(Low growling)
{9072}{9149}The 0phthalmosaurus|are starting to give birth.
{9151}{9259}Most sea reptiles lay eggs on land,|but not 0phthalmosaurus.
{9290}{9305}They give birth to live young.
{9305}{9367}They give birth to live young.
{9367}{9429}This frees them from the need|to crawl out of the water,
{9432}{9530}and has allowed them to evolve|their fish-like shapes.
{9583}{9645}A female has two to five pups,
{9648}{9707}but since they are air-breathers,
{9707}{9763}the young must be born tail first,
{9794}{9808}or they would drown|before they escaped from the mother.
{9808}{9914}or they would drown|before they escaped from the mother.
{10295}{10379}The newborn pups|have just a few seconds
{10381}{10475}to reach the surface|and take their first breath.
{10647}{10729}As soon as they are born,|the pups are vulnerable.
{10731}{10774}These waters are full of predators.
{10777}{10870}Even adult 0phthalmosaurus|will eat the offspring of others
{10873}{10959}to increase the chance of survival|for their own pups.
{10959}{11074}The only real safety|is amongst the crags of coral.
{11182}{11252}Birth is a dangerous time|for the mothers, too.
{11254}{11309}This female is trying desperately
{11309}{11374}to expel her unborn offspring.
{11376}{11472}Fighting for air,|she stays near the surface.
{11503}{11570}Her struggles are a lure to sharks.
{11573}{11635}These predators have acute hearing,
{11640}{11755}and the sound of splashing|betrays an animal in distress.
{11837}{11918}As perfectly evolved|killing machines,
{11920}{11976}sharks patrolled the oceans
{11978}{12050}long before|marine reptiles appeared.
{12201}{12285}After 20 minutes,|her exertions are exhausting her.
{12287}{12378}She is having|to breathe more frequently.
{12417}{12486}The sharks start to move in closer.
{12659}{12762}Suddenly, something lurking|in the gloom scatters the sharks.
{14145}{14160}Liopleurodon - at 150 tonnes,
{14160}{14222}Liopleurodon - at 150 tonnes,
{14222}{14309}it is the largest|and most powerful carnivore
{14313}{14371}ever to live on the planet.
{14373}{14457}This male measures|a colossal 25 metres,
{14460}{14517}and is big even for his kind.
{14519}{14635}His size means he is probably|over 100 years old.
{14783}{14879}He, too, detected the mother's|distress from a distance.
{14882}{14975}Liopleurodon|has a directional sense of smell -
{14975}{15023}two chambers in his nose
{15025}{15095}work in the same way|as a pair of ears -
{15097}{15167}pinpointing the source of a smell -
{15169}{15217}a sophisticated tracking device,
{15220}{15323}steering the largest|carnivorous jaws ever known.
{15534}{15642}Each one of Liopleurodon's four|flippers is over three metres long,
{15646}{15694}giving him enough power
{15697}{15802}to guide his huge bulk effortlessly|through the water.
{16239}{16308}By now,|the coral reefs around the islands
{16311}{16375}are full of baby 0phthalmosaurus.
{16378}{16469}This intricate network of caves|is their refuge,
{16471}{16591}a safe haven from which they can|start to learn about their world.
{16593}{16697}Baby 0phthalmosaurus|have prominent teeth,
{16699}{16768}allowing them to cope|with the tough prey
{16771}{16840}they find among the coral.
{16843}{16908}But this little male|has yet to learn
{16910}{17020}that ammonite shells|are too tough for him.
{17526}{17610}Above the sea,|food is less plentiful.
{17612}{17706}A lonely dinosaur has been forced|to swim between the islands
{17708}{17766}in search of a meal.
{18032}{18082}With huge marine predators|in the water,
{18085}{18135}this is a dangerous journey.
{18411}{18459}Large dinosaurs are rare here,
{18461}{18548}and at five metres|from nose to tail,
{18550}{18619}Eustreptospondylus is the biggest.
{18703}{18751}They are primarily scavengers,
{18754}{18823}combing the beaches|for dead animals,
{18826}{18878}but on such small islands,
{18881}{18989}they are always under pressure|to find more carrion.
{19226}{19310}But another scavenger|has got here first.
{19312}{19360}This Eustreptospondylus
{19363}{19478}is picking the last rotten strips|of flesh off a dead turtle.
{19480}{19552}But even these decaying remains
{19552}{19636}are enough to trigger|a confrontation.
{19895}{19964}Neither will risk an injury
{19967}{20063}and in the end,|it is the loudest roar that wins.
{20065}{20108}(Fierce roar)
{20379}{20504}The only food supply here that is|not from the sea is the insects.
{20506}{20573}Bark beetles infest the trees here.
{20576}{20655}They represent|a tantalising feast of protein
{20657}{20705}just under the surface.
{20950}{21065}This tempts a young Rhamphorhynchus|to probe for insect larvae,
{21067}{21192}but this is not really a job|his beak is evolved to cope with.
{21477}{21533}Now two weeks old,
{21533}{21669}the young 0phthalmosaurus|are growing fast on a seafood diet,
{21672}{21729}but they are still at risk...
{21732}{21806}especially from shark attack.
{21868}{21969}A head of coral provides|a temporary refuge for this pup.
{22031}{22089}His pursuer has a deadly advantage -
{22091}{22158}he does not have to return|to the surface to breathe
{22180}{22213}and has only to wait|until the pup needs air.
{22537}{22640}But the little reptile|has one thing on his side...
{22997}{23053}Safe...|until he needs to breathe again.
{23196}{23242}Having a lungful of air
{23244}{23324}presents marine reptiles|with a buoyancy problem.
{23326}{23386}Cryptoclidus has found one solution.
{23388}{23465}He is not searching for food|in the sand.
{23467}{23518}He is after pebbles and grit.
{23520}{23571}Sieving off the fine grains,
{23573}{23686}he retains the larger stones|in his stomach for ballast,
{23690}{23801}which weighs him down and|counteracts the air in his lungs.
{23865}{23935}The land represents safety|for the Cryptoclidus -
{23937}{24031}they have come up|onto the rock ledges to rest,
{24033}{24129}and also to be out of reach|of Liopleurodon.
{24796}{24880}Darkness does not bring peace|in the restless sea.
{24880}{24928}Billions of microscopic creatures
{24932}{25021}rise up from the depths|as the light fails,
{25023}{25119}and shoals of fish|surge into life to pursue them.
{25122}{25222}0phthalmosaurus adults|are masters of hunting at night.
{25222}{25273}Most have left for deeper waters,
{25275}{25378}but a few remain to take advantage|of the plenty here.
{25381}{25465}With their enormous|light-sensitive eyes,
{25467}{25551}they pick out squid in the gloom.
{25913}{25999}Their long toothless snouts|are streamlined weapons,
{26002}{26117}making it e...
Zgłoś jeśli naruszono regulamin